Hej Pia og tak for dit indlæg og ikke mindst din artikel. Ronadizole er en medicin der bruges til at slå TF ihjel hos fugle - i.e. primært duer og rovfugle der holdes i fangenskab.
TF smitter via afføring - både når det gælder katte men altså også når det gælder fugle. Du har iøvrigt ret i at TF også kendes hos køer. Formodentlig er smittevejen den samme
som til katte - i.e. via fugle på markerne. Jeg ved ikke hvad man behandler køer med når det gælder TF - men da fugle behandles med det samme som er virksomt
hos katte så er det rimeligt at forestille sig at den TF vi ser hos vores katte stammer fra fugle. Nu testes vildtlevende fugle jo ikke for TF - men det er en utrolig almindelig parasit
hos duer og rovfugle.
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae) - Pigeon Canker.
Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan organism that is commonly found in the mouth,throat, gastro-intestinal tract and upper respiratory tract of pigeons, doves, turkeys, chickens, canaries, raptors (birds of prey) and a variety of psittacine (parrot) bird speciesincluding budgerigars, cockatiels and Amazon parrots. Both domestic and wild bird species can be affected.In large numbers, the Trichomonas organism is capable of causing severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in avian hosts. This disease condition is termed trichomoniasis by medical professionals. To bird enthusiasts, the Trichomonas disease condition is also known by such names as “trich” (said like ‘try-k’), “Canker” (pigeons and doves) or “Frounce” (raptors).
This page contains detailed, but simple to understand, information on the bird diseasetrichomoniasis or “Canker”, which is caused by the protozoan organism Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonas disease symptoms, modes of transmission (means of disease spread), medical treatment options and tips for ongoing Trichomonas prevention are all included, along with information on how to diagnose the condition.
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae) - Contents:
[B]1) What is avian [I]Trichomonas[/I] and what does it look like? - facts about the [I]Trichomonas[/I] organism.[/B]
Contains a link to a Trichomonas gallinae video that was filmed by this author in the clinic.
[B]2) Symptoms of [I]Trichomonas[/I] infection in birds (symptoms of canker disease).[/B]
This section includes a list of diseases other than Trichomonas that can cause white or yellow plaques or spotsto appear in the mouths and throats of birds (i.e. diseases that can mimic or look like Trichomonas).
[B]3) How is trichomoniasis disease spread among birds?[/B]
[B]4) How is trichomoniasis diagnosed in birds (how to tell if a bird has the organism)?
5) Treatment of Trichomonad infestations in definitive host birds.
6) Preventing your bird from catching canker.
Includes information and tips for the control and prevention of Trichomonas in large bird flocks.
1) What is avian Trichomonas and what does it look like? - facts about the Trichomonas organism.
Avian Trichomonas is a parasitic organism that infests the upper gastro-intestinal tract(esophagus, crop and proventriculus), mouth, oropharynx (throat region) and upper respiratory tract of a range of different bird species. The species of Trichomonas that affectsbirds including: pigeons, doves, turkeys, chickens, canaries, raptors (birds of prey), various parrot species (e.g. budgerigars, cockatiels and Amazon parrots) as well as certain other types of birds iscalled Trichomonas gallinae (there is also another species of Trichomonas that affects pigeons,which is called Trichomonas columbae).
What type of organism is Trichomonas:
The Trichomonas organism is a protozoan organism. A protozoa is a single-celledorganism (organism comprising of a single cell).
Trichomonas belongs to a group of protozoan organisms called ‘flagellates’. Many species offlagellate organisms parasitize birds and Trichomonas is but one of these (Giardia and Hexamita are some of the other flagellate species that infect birds). Flagellate organisms are characterized by having ‘flagella’. Flagella (singular flagellum) are long, hair-like structures that protrude from the bodies of certain protozoan organisms and provide them with momentum (i.e. help them to swim). The various Trichomonas species (there aremany species of Trichomonas in addition to T. gallinae) have distinct clumps of flagella protruding from the anterior end of their bodies (the exact number of flagella present is one cluescientists use to determine the particular species of a Trichomonas organism that they have found).Most Trichomonads only have a maximum of 3-5 flagella. Trichomonas gallinae has 4 flagella.
What does Trichomonas look like - body characteristics and features of the organism:
Trichomonas organisms have a main body structure that is tear-drop or oval shaped. Being a completecell (a true single-celled organism), the body of Trichomonas contains a single nucleus. A centralrod-like structure called an axostyle runs through the centre of the organism along the long-axis. It protrudes a bit fromthe posterior end of the organism’s body. A distinct membrane called an undulating membraneruns down one side of the organism’s body like a fin. When the Trichomonas organism is viewed under the microscope, this membrane is seen to ripple down the organism’s body in curved waves (hence the term: undulating). As mentioned before, 3-5 flagella protrude from the anterior end of the Trichomonas organism. One ofthese flagella (called a posterior flagellum) curves backwards, running along the topedge of the undulating membrane towards the rear of the organism.
I have drawn a very stylised diagram of a Trichomonas organism on the right. Dependingon the species of Trichomonas you are looking at, physical differences may exist in such features as: the numberof anterior flagella, the size and length of the undulating membrane, the size and shape and position of theparabasal body and the length of the axostyle.
Author’s note: I have colored parts of the diagram to make my labeling moreclear. Trichomonas, when seen under the microscope, is colorless and translucent.
To see my video on identifying [I]Trichomonas[/I], through the microscope, click here.
How does Trichomonas reproduce (replicate)?:
The organism replicates by longitudinal fission, meaning that it essentially divides into two along its long axis. It does not produce a long-lived environmentally-shed oocyst like many other protozoan organisms do (e.g. coccidia, Giardia)and, for this reason, it can not survive for long away from its host.
How does Trichomonas survive in the body (what does it feed on) and how does it produce signs of disease?:
Trichomonas is an organism that lives and feeds on the mucosal surfaces liningvarious internal regions of the body. Which regions of the body get affected by Trichomonasdepends very much on the particular species of Trichomonas you are talking about. For example: Trichomonas tenax dwells on the mucosal surfaces lining the mouth, gums and upper respiratory tracts of people; Trichomonas gallinae affects the upper gastro-intestinal tract(esophagus, crop and proventriculus), mouth, oropharynx (throat region) and upper respiratory tract of birds and Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus both live uponthe mucosal surfaces lining the male and female reproductive tracts of humans and cattle, respectively.
On the one hand, Trichomonas can be considered to be a “clean up organism” in that it primarily feeds upon bacteria, cellular debris (bits of dead cells and bacteria), protein exudates andwhite blood cells (pus) present on the body surfaces where it lives. Many strains of Trichomonascause absolutely no symptoms in animals or people and are found incidentally during routine swabs.
Important note: Because they feed on cell debris, pus and bacteria, Trichomonasnumbers will often increase dramatically when the surfaces that they live on become infected or sick for some other reason (e.g. Trichomonas tenax loves to feed and breedin infected gum pockets and will tend to be found in people with poor dental hygiene and associated gum disease). Swabs of these infected tissues will often yield high numbers ofTrichomonas organisms, but one has to be cautious in interpreting this ‘positive’ resultbecause the Trichomonas populations might in fact only be increased secondary to some another disease condition (i.e. the Trichomonas organisms may not actually be responsible for the disease condition seen)!
More virulent, disease-causing strains of Trichomonas release proteins and enzymes that break down or ‘digest’ surrounding host tissues, causing injuryto these host tissues. They do this to make more food (more cell debris) for themselves. The highly antigenic proteins and enzymes released by the Trichomonas protozoans, as well as the host tissue damage incurred as a result of them, trigger a huge inflammatory response by the host, producing redness, swelling, pain, itching and pus exudation of the regions occupied by the Trichomonas organisms. Macrophages (a type of very large white blood cell) are often included in this inflammatory response as they are able to destroy Trichomonas organisms. The digestive proteins made bythe Trichomonas organisms and the injurious effects of the attacking host inflammatory response both conspire to produce damage to the host’s tissues.
Even though Trichomonas generally only dwells on the mucosal surfaces of tissues likethe mouth, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and vagina, sometimes the damage produced by the organisms can be so severe that the organism virtually ‘eats through’ the liningof its home and invades some of the more internal tissues. Both species of avianTrichomonas have been known to enter the livers of pigeons via the gastrointestinal tractand extreme infections of Trichomonas gallinae have been known to eat through theroof of the mouth of raptors, resulting in invasion of the brain.
Author’s note: Trichomonas organisms prefer to live in more alkaline pH conditions(around pH 5-6). They will actively secrete substances into their local environment thatfacilitate a pH change towards their favored pH range. Bathing Trichomonas infected tissueswith mildly acidic solutions can often help to reduce their numbers (acidity kills them).
Does Trichomonas survive if it is away from its host?:
Trichomonas does not produce a long-lived environmentally-shed oocyst like many other protozoan organisms do (e.g. coccidia, Giardia) and, for this reason, it can not survive for long away from its host.I tend to find when I am performing Trichomonas swabs that I must look at them straight awayunder the microscope (i.e. as soon as possible after swabbing the host) otherwise they will die off within minutes and become undetectable. After about 30 minutes, most of the ones ona swab sample will generally have died - they do not live very long at all out of the host.
For this reason (limited survival away from the host animal), Trichomonas is generally transmitted though very close host-to-host contact. Depending on the species of Trichomonas and on the body sites it invades, this mode of transmission might include: kissing, sex, regurgitant feeding (birds)or the consumption of Trichomonas affected prey (raptors). Transmission can also occur through shared food and water sources, provided the organisms are not made to stay in the food or water for very long (they can live for some span of minutes in food and water sources, allowing some transmissionthrough this route). This route of transmission becomes very important when lots of animalsare eating and drinking at the same place at the same time (e.g. at busy bird feeders, aviaries).
Some basics on other Trichomonas species:
Trichomonas gallinae of birds is closely related to the various other Trichomonas organisms that live inother animal and human host species. Other types of Trichomonas include: Trichomonas tenax(which lives in the mouth, gums and respiratory tracts of people, often producing no symptoms); Trichomonas vaginalis (which lives in the reproductive tracts of people, causing reproductive problemsand infertility in some people and no signs of disease in others) and Tritrichomonas foetus (which lives in the reproductive tracts of cattle, zebu and other related hosts, causing vaginitis, early abortion, failure to conceive and infertility). There is also a species of Trichomonas now emergingthat is found to cause signs of colitis (mucoid stools, diarrhea, fresh blood in the feces, ‘straining to defecate’ and high-frequency defecation) in cats and kittens. It is found by examiningthe mucus present in freshly-passed stools under the microscope.
Note - The Trichomonad species that affect the reproductive tract(T. foetus and T. vaginalis) are generally carried by male animals(who usually show no symptoms) and passed to female animals through mating (the femaleanimals are the ones who usually show the signs of disease).
2) Symptoms of Trichomonas infection in birds (symptoms of canker disease).
Birds with low levels of Trichomonas infestation may show absolutely no symptoms at all. In these cases,the organisms may go undiagnosed or they might be found by accident during a routine crop wash or oropharyngealswab examination. Folks who race pigeons often perform routine swabs on birds that appear clinicallynormal to detect if they carry the organisms and might pose a risk of infection to other birds in the loft.
Symptomatic Trichomonas gallinae infestations tend to present as signs of irritation and inflammation localised to the mouth, throat, gastrointestinal tract (lining of crop, esophagus and proventriculus)and upper respiratory tract, which makes sense since the organisms happen to preferentially reside inside of these regions. Symptoms suggestive of avian Trichomonas infection (canker) include:
[li]1) white or yellow cheesy-looking plaques, ulcers and/or nodules inside of the mouth and throat;[/li][li]2) reduced appetite, complete inappetance and/or a physical inability to eat;[/li][li]3) inability to swallow (either due to pain or because of severe esophageal thickening making food difficult to pass);[/li][li]4) crop stasis (thickening of the lining of the crop and/or oesophagus results in an inability of the food to move from the mouth to the stomach, producing starvation);[/li][li]5) excessive mucus in the mouth, esophagus and crop;[/li][li]6) regurgitation;[/li][li]7) vomiting (some birds vomit blood);[/li][li]8) dehydration;[/li][li]9) weight loss and poor body condition (some birds can become extremely emaciated);[/li][li]10) depression (fluffed-up, sleepy appearance - the ‘sick bird’ look);[/li][li]11) weakness;[/li][li]12) diarrhea;[/li][li]13) respiratory distress (the mucus secretions plug the trachea and throat, making it hard for the birds to breathe);[/li][li]14) liver damage can occur if the liver is invaded by Trichomonas organisms, resulting in green biliverdinemia (birds with liver failure or ‘jaundice’ appear green, not yellow);[/li][li]15) death.[/li][/ul]
Some severely affected birds may show many or most of these symptoms, whereas other birds may only showone or two of them and be almost asymptomatic.
Budgerigars rarely develop obvious oral lesions.
Raptors often get nasty, cheesy-looking lesions under their tongues and on their hard palates(the roof of the mouth). Over time, the Trichomonas organisms can destroy thehard palate and/or mandible (jaw bone), making the bird unable to eat and causing it to die from starvation.On some occasions, the Trichomonas organisms can even eat through the roof of the mouth and throatand into the skull and brain. Such a condition is generally fatal.
Diseases other than Trichomonas that can produce white or yellow plaques or ulcers in the mouths of birds:
[li]Candida[/li][li]Avian Pox Viruses (e.g. pigeon pox, magpie pox, canary pox);[/li][li]Bacterial infections and abscesses[/li][li]Squamous metaplasia from a lack of vitamin A in the diet (avitaminosis A)[/li][li]Aspergillus infections[/li][li]Capillariasis[/li][li]Mycobacterial infections (e.g. avian tuberculosis)[/li][li]Amazon tracheitis virus (a herpesvirus of Amazon parrots that is often associated with respiratory disease signs)[/li][li]Various cancers of the mouth (squamous cell carcinomas, Fibrosarcomas, Lymphomas and Polyps have been diagnosed in birds)[/li][/ul]
3) How is trichomoniasis disease spread among birds?
Trichomonas gallinae and Trichomonas columbae are spread from bird to birdoften via contaminated feed and water sources. During normal feeding and drinking activities, Trichomonas organisms present in the mouth and nasal secretions (e.g. saliva) of infected birds may enter food and water sources, contaminating them. Other birds consuming water and foodfrom the same sources (e.g. feed bowls) can pick up these organisms, thus becoming infected.
Trichomonas organisms are also passed in the feces of infected birds. Infected birdsmay defecate into food and water sources, contaminating those food and water supplies with Trichomonasorganisms that can infect the next bird that comes along.
Author’s note: Be very aware of the potential for wild birds to pose a source ofTrichomonas infection for domestic birds. Wild pigeons and other species can walkaround on the roofs of aviaries, defecating through the wire into the food and water suppliesof the birds dwelling within. This is one way that a ‘clean’ flock can become contaminatedwith nasty Trichomonas.
Infected parent birds can spread Trichomonas to their young directly through regurgitantfeeding. When a bird regurgitates, it brings up partially digested food stored in its crop and passes this on to its young. Given that Trichomonas lives in the crop, esophagus and mouth, it follows that regurgitative feeding will result in large numbers of this organismpassing on to the baby birds. Pigeons are particularly bad for this. Pigeons produce a nutritious secretion in their crops that is referred to as ‘crop milk’. They regurgitate thisto their offspring (squabs - the term for a young pigeon) as a form of nutrition and, in doing so, pass the Trichomonas bugs on to them.
Raptors (birds of prey) become infected with Trichomonas by predating upon other birds (e.g. doves and pigeons) that are carrying the organism. It takes about 10 days for the raptor to develop obvious infectionafter eating a sick bird.
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae) - Pigeon Canker.